[ citation needed ], Malayan porcupines are terrestrial and usually to be found in small groups in various types of forest habitats, as well as open areas near forests: they may also stray into nearby agricultural areas. It is also present on the island of Penang, Malaysia. The quills of the Malayan porcupine are used for ornamental purposes. Please enter your e-mail address and password below. [1], This species and its close relatives are believed to have originated from southern Asia based on their current distribution. It is found in various types of forest habitats as well as open areas near forests. b. punungensis (extinct) [2] H. b. yunnanensisAnderson, 1878H. © International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is the third largest living rodent in the world after the capybara and beaver. Originaldatei ‎ (6.791 × 4.532 Pixel, Dateigröße: 16,75 MB, MIME-Typ: image/jpeg). Three subspecies are extant in South and South-east Asia. IUCN has categorized this species as Least Concern. Its unique morphology—inward-turned front feet, flattened chest, powerful forelimbs with large claws—suggests adaptations for climbing. Sandokanidae is a family of harvestmen in the suborder Laniatores, formerly referred to as Oncopodidae. Contents. van. The Borneo is located in Sunda Shelf which is an extensive region in Southeast Asia of immense importance in terms of biodiversity, biogeography and phylogeography of fauna and flora that had attracted AR Wallace and biologists all over the world. The Indian porcupine is an ‘Old World’ porcupine and one of the world's largest porcupines. Like usual rodents, they live in underground burrows. A Malayan porcupine photographed at Kaeng Krachan National Park, Phetchaburi, Thailand. They may also dig out and live in burrows, from which a network of trails penetrate into surrounding habitat. It belongs to the Old World porcupine family, Hystricidae. Preference and Intake of Feedstuff by Crested Porcupines(Hystrix Brachyura) in Captivity. The sun bear is a species in the family Ursidae occurring in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. Dezember 2015. It was reported as universal medicine in ancient time. The genus is naturally distributed in tropical regions of India, Southeast Asia and New Guinea. The Malayan porcupine or Himalayan porcupine is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. Meet the Malayan Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura), a mammal belonging to the Hystricidae family. It contains two species, H. javanica and H. brachyura, the smaller species with comparatively smaller nasals. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 29. It is one of the 76 mammal species which have been identified in the Restorasi Ekosistem Riau (RER) area. Unlike the 'New World' porcupines, this porcupine is a ground-dwelling and burrowing animal. Namings for the Malayan porcupine A young / baby of a Malayan porcupine is called a 'pup'. [citation needed] Porcupines are also hunted for meat. This website was made possible through generous support from: You must log in to access advanced IUCN Red List functionality. The Old World porcupines, or Hystricidae, are large terrestrial rodents, distinguished by the spiny covering from which they take their name. The porcupine is a caviomorph rodent whose ancestors crossed the Atlantic from Africa to Brazil 30 million years ago, and then migrated to North America during the Great American Interchange after the Isthmus of Panama rose 3 million years ago. The Malayan Porcupine, or East Asian Porcupine, is one of the largest of Southeast Asia's seven species of porcupine. cies such as Malayan tiger, Orangutan, Asian elephant and . It is a nocturnal omnivore. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. Their origin may lie from a common Late Pleistocene ancestor when Sumatra, Borneo, and Palawan were part of Sundaland. en English; Piemontèis; Português do Brasil; Türkçe; français; suomi; македонски A. macrourus (brush-tailed porcupine) and H. brachyura (Malayan porcupine) . Malayan porcupine, also known as Himalayan porcupine, is a rodent lives spread across South and Southeast Asia. This species can be found throughout Southeast Asia ranging from Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, southern Vietnam, southern Burma, and Singapore. Hystrix brachyura in der Roten Liste gefährdeter Arten der IUCN 2015-4. The gestation period is about 90 to 112 days. It is found in the Indo-Malayan Realm and the Palearctic. Scripta Geologica, 126: 217-225 PDF Parr J W.K, (2003).East Asian Porcupine Hystrix Brachyura: From Systematic, A Guide to the Large Mammals of Thailand (144).Bangkok: Sarakadee Press, Learn how and when to remove this template message. Cryptocoryne is a genus of aquatic plants from the family Araceae. Malayan porcupine lives in forests, cultivation land, and plantation areas. In: Andrew T. Smith, Yan Xie: A Guide to the Mammals of China. The Malayan porcupine or Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. 1°N–31°N (Fig. In the 2001 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species ver. The quills of the Malayan porcupine are used for ornamental purposes. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Malayan weasel or Malay weasel is a weasel species native to the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. They also live in burrows, which have a network of trails that lead into surrounding habitat. Sumatran tiger is considered critically endangered by the IUCN. The life span of the Malayan porcupine lasts up to 27 years. 2008). (1985). In 2008, its population was thought to consist of between 441 and 670 individuals. The Malayan Porcupine is also found in Indonesia, where it is known as ‘Landak Raya’. et al. (1995). The quills of the Malayan porcupine are used for ornamental purposes. They can also swim and gnaw. They normally feed on roots, tubers, bark and fallen fruits. The quills of the Malayan porcupine are used for ornamental purposes. Vaughan, T. A. Posted by value investor at 13:56. [ citation needed ]. b. subcristataH. It can be found from sea level to at least 1, m asl. They also eat carrion, insects, and large tropical seeds such as belonging to Chisocheton cumingianus . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is the smallest bear, standing nearly 70 centimetres at the shoulder and weighing 25–65 kilograms. In: IUCN 2008. Well of cause we bring in some enrichment to break the boredom. Acanthion is a subgenus of Old World porcupines in the genus Hystrix. Hystrix brachyura (Malayan Porcupine) is a species of rodents in the family Old World porcupines. Views Read Edit View history. Meet the Malayan Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura), a mammal belonging to the Hystricidae family. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. (2003) The porcupine Hystrix (Acanthion) brachyura punungensis subsp. H. brachyura forages at night and rests during the day. In T. A. Vaughan, Mammalogy Third Edition (pp. Atherurus macrourus (brush-tailed porcupine), Hystrix brachyura (Malayan porcupine), Thecurus crassispinis (thick-spined porcupine), and Trichys fasciculata (long-tailed porcupine) (Wilson & Reeder, 2005; IUCN, 2016; Phillipps & Phillipps, 2016) (Figure 2). The beaver is the only rodent in North America that is larger than the North American porcupine. (2003) The porcupine Hystrix (Acanthion) brachyura punungensis subsp. b. hodgsoni from India The Malayan Porcupine is also found in Indonesia, where it is known as ‘Landak Raya’. A. macrourus are nocturnal rat-like species and have long slender Although both the Old World and New World porcupine families belong to the infraorder Hystricognathi of the vast order Rodentia, they are quite different and are not particularly closely related. How many Malayan tigers are in captivity? [1], It is a large and stout-bodied rodent covered with quills which are sharp, rigid structures. Abgerufen am 20. Diese Datei und die Informationen unter dem roten Trennstrich werden aus dem zentralen Medienarchiv Wikimedia Commons eingebunden. Weblinks. The Malayan porcupine or Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. It is found in Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, and Uganda. [6] Those on their upper body parts are rough with black with white or yellow stripes. The species may give birth hystrixx two litters annually. The extant species have only one black ring or coloured part on the quills. Porcupines are large rodents with coats of sharp and pointy spines, or quills, that protect them against predators. They weigh around 0.7 kg-2.4 kg. It is endemic to the island of Borneo and found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Malayan porcupines inhabit dens near rocky areas, where they live in small groups. The quills are modified hair. Malayan Porcupine And Its Quills. [ citation needed ] Porcupines are also hunted for meat. The latitude range of H. brachyura is 5°S–35°N, which totally encompasses the range of A. macrourus, i.e. I Dahlan,AA Salam,BS Amin,A Osman. The fur is generally jet-black, but can vary from grey to red. Connect with us Help us improve the site brachyyra taking our survey. The long-nosed horned frog, also known as the Malayan horned frog or Malayan leaf frog is a species of frog restricted to the rainforest areas of southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore, Sumatra and Borneo. The nativ es in Malaysia believ ed that every part . Hystrix brachyura brachyura - Common Malayan Porcupine. Three subspecies are extant in South and Southeast Asia.. Geographical distribution. What to do in a boring day? The IUCN Red List says there are between 80 and 120 breeding adults left. The Malayan porcupine, Hystrix brachyura Linnaeus, 1758, ... Hystrix brachyura was classified as ‘Least Concern’ worldwide by the IUCN Red List (Lunde et al., 2008b), albeit with a reported decline in total population size of at least 20% in the 1990s due to hunting (Nowak, 1999). T Three subspecies are extant in South and Southeast Asia. However, records from Thailand to the Sunda Shelf may apply to another, possibly unnamed species. IUCN has categorized this species as Least Concern (LC) species. Their maximum longevity is about 27 years. The thick-spined porcupine is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. They range over the south of Europe and the Levant, most of Africa, India, and the maritime Southeast Asia as far east as Flores. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, arable land, and pastureland. The Malayan porcupine ranges from Nepal through north-east India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland), to Bangladesh, central and southern China (Xizang, Hainan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Fujian, Jianxi, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Gansu), throughout Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, through Peninsular Malaysia, to Singapore, Sumatra (Indonesia) and throughout Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, Sarawak [5] and Brunei). Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. The term covers two families of animals: the Old World porcupines of family Hystricidae, and the New World porcupines of family Erethizontidae. Malayan porcupine, also known as Himalayan porcupine, is a rodent lives spread across South and Southeast Asia. The Malayan porcupine is likely the main species of Asian porcupines in trade, both for its meat, but also its bezoar, mainly due to its wide distribution. IUCN SSC Tapir Specialist Group Chair: Patricia Medici Red List Authority Coordinator: Cody Schank The IUCN SSC Tapir Specialist Group (TSG) is dedicated to conserving tapirs and their habitat through strategic action-planning in countries where tapirs live, information sharing and through educational outreach that shows the importance of the tapir to local ecosystems and to the world at large. One of the traditional folk medicine in the Malaysia is using porcupine bezoar. A large number of Hystrix fossils have been excavated from the … This bezoar has been a myth to the locals. – kaufen Sie dieses Foto und finden Sie ähnliche Bilder auf Adobe Stock [citation needed] Gallery. There are 9 subspecies of tiger: 6 are endangered and 3 are already extinct. It may be found singly or in pairs. The breeding season is between September and November. The young's soft quills become hard as they enter adulthood. The females are called 'sow' and males 'boar'. Downloaded on 5 January 2009. That number is likely declining, the IUCN warns. [ citation needed ] The head and body measurement are around 63-72.5 cm and the tail is about 6–11 cm. To save searches and access a historical view of information you have downloaded you are required to register for an account. Throughout its distribution, Hystrix brachyura is protected under legislation. Family Hystricidae. It can also swim and gnaw. b. hodgsoniH. [6], Female porcupines have a gestation period of 110 days and a litter size of two or three. Malayan porcupine in the forest – kaufen Sie dieses Foto und finden Sie ähnliche Bilder auf Adobe Stock This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Malaysia.There are 313 mammal species in Malaysia, of which six are critically endangered, seventeen are endangered, twenty-eight are vulnerable, and one is near threatened.Every mammal in Malaysia belongs to the subclass Theria, and the infraclass Eutheria, as all are placental mammals.They are listed below by the order which they belong to. [4] Three subspecies are extant in South and Southeast Asia. A Malayan porcupine group is called a 'prickle or family'. The Cape porcupine or South African porcupine, is a species of Old World porcupine native to central and southern Africa. Homalomena are primarily found in southern Asia and the southwestern Pacific, but there are a few species that are known to be indigenous to Latin America. b. bengalensisBlyth, 1851 [3]. The rusty-bellied brush-furred rat is a species of rodent in the family Muridae. Both front and hind legs have smooth soles. Many Homalomena have a strong smell of anise. The smallest porcupine is the Rothschilds Porcupine from South America which weighs only 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds). The amazingly strong front … Eingestellt von: D. Lunde, K. Aplin, S. Molur, 2008. Malayan Porcupine: translation. The common porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is considered Vulnerable. Malayan Porcupine : Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 : Order : RODENTIA Family : Hystricidae Species : Hystrix brachyura Head-Body Length : Up to 72 cm Tail Length : Up to 11 cm. Although many porcupine species are extremely adaptable to changing environmental conditions, some are threatened, according to the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The Malayan porcupine, Hystrix brachyura Credit: Getty Images. The name derives apparently from a mistranslated Malayan vernacular name, translated as homalos, meaning flat, and mene = moon. It is found in China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Malayan porcupine is likely the main species of Asian porcupines in trade, both for its meat, but also its bezoar, mainly due to its wide distribution. More images (20) >> Included taxa Number of records: 5. subspecies Hystrix brachyura brachyura (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common Malayan Porcupine. They have short, stocky legs covered in brown hairs which have four claws on the front and five on the hind legs. The diet mainly consists of pig-tailed macaque, great argus, Malayan porcupine, Sambar deer, Indian muntjac, and Malayan tapir. Malayan porcupine provided by wikipedia EN The Malayan porcupine or Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. The Malayan porcupine is listed as Vulnerable (VU), considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild, on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Until recently, it was thought to be one of only two species of flying lemurs, the other being the Philippine flying lemur, which is found only in the Philippines. The Malayan porcupine or Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. Homalomena is a genus of flowering plants within the family Araceae. nov. from Late Pleistocene fissure deposits near Punung, Java. Both families belong to the infraorder Hystricognathi within the profoundly diverse order Rodentia and display superficially similar coats of quills: despite this, the two groups are distinct from each other and are not closely related to each other within the Hystricognathi. ↑ Weers, D.J. Andrew T. Smith: Malayan Porcupine. Version 2020-3. They are also hunted for meat. The selling price of the porcupine bezoar in Malaysia market is around RM300–RM1000 for 500 mg. It is one of the 76 mammal species which have been identified in the Restorasi Ekosistem Riau (RER) area. IUCN has categorized this species as Least Concern. Three subspecies are extant in South and Southeast Asia. The Asiatic brush-tailed porcupine is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. H. b. brachyuraH. Author: Klaus Rudloff. Measuring Recovery with the IUCN Green Status of Species. It is known locally as durian or landak. Contents. Sun bears get their name from the characteristic orange to cream coloured chest patch. [ citation needed ]. The Malayan porcupine or Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. The life span of the Malayan porcupine lasts up to 27 years. van. nov. from Late Pleistocene fissure deposits near Punung, Java. This rodent has rather long quills of up to 16 inches. 3.1, the Malayan porcupine is listed as “Least Concern”, although previously classifi ed as “Vulnerable”. IUCN 2020. Malayan porcupine in front of cave. Porcupines are also hunted for meat. Three subspecies are extant in South and Southeast Asia. Malayan Porcupine; Himalayan Crestless Porcupine H. b. hodgsoni from IndiaH. Habitat. It is stockily built, with large paws, strongly curved claws, small rounded ears and a short snout. The North American porcupine, also known as the Canadian porcupine, is a large rodent in the New World porcupine family. The Malayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is known to be native to Singapore, but the lack of sightings from 1970‒2000 suggested that the species was either locally rare or extinct. The Malayan porcupine or Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae. Little is known about the mating system and reproductive behavior of Malayan porcupines. porcupine (Endangered Animals of the W orld 2006; Lunde . Ann Zootech 44, 271. The species may give birth to two litters annually. Individuals are known to live for 327.6 months and can grow to 8000 g. Reproduction is dioecious. . The quills of the Malayan porcupine are used for ornamental purposes. Predation and human encroachment are the main threats, though many Hystricidae species are quite adaptable to changing habitat. They often inhabit dens they have found near rocky areas or in the holes of trees or root systems. They can be found in all forest types up to 1500 m altitude. It can be found from sea level to at least 1,300 m asl. The Malayan porcupine ranges from Nepal through North-east India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland), to central and southern China (Xizang, Hainan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Fujian, Jianxi, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Gansu), throughout Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam, thro… It also occurs on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. This article uses material from Wikipedia released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike Licence 3.0. The Malayan porcupine ranges from Nepal through North-east India (Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland), to central and southern China (Xizang, Hainan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Fujian, Jianxi, Zhejiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Gansu), throughout Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam, thro… Weers, D.J. Both the thick-spined porcupine (Hystrix crassispinis) and North African porcupine (Hystrix cristata) are ranked as Lower Risk/Near Threatened by the IUCN. ... IUCN has categorized this species as Least Concern. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ 2008, ISBN 978-0-691-09984-2, S. 274–275. The Sunda flying lemur or Sunda colugo, also known as the Malayan flying lemur or Malayan colugo, is a species of colugo. In fact, most old-world porcupine species currently appear on the IUCN Red List as either “least concern” or “data deficient. These animals forage at night and rest during the day. 1). The Indian crested porcupine is a hystricomorph rodent species native to southern Asia and the Middle East. The crested porcupine also known as the African crested porcupine, is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae found in Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. The Philippine porcupine, or Palawan porcupine is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae endemic to the island of Palawan in the Philippines. (A “Vulnerable” species is likely to become “Endangered”, unless the circumstances threatening its survival and reproduction Find out which types of tigers are still around and how to protect them. The sow usually delivers a single pup at a time, but delivering two pups has also been recorded. Azlan J, M & Engkamat, L (2006) Camera trapping and conservation in Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak. Species as Least Concern princeton University Press, princeton NJ 2008, ISBN 978-0-691-09984-2, S. Molur 2008... Every part islands of Sumatra and Borneo unnamed species: Getty Images bear... Weasel species native to central and southern Africa, southern Burma, and Malaysia, stocky covered. Originated from southern Asia based on their current distribution Asian porcupine, also known as the Malayan porcupine ( brachyura... Are sharp, rigid structures the New World porcupine native to central southern... 2008, ISBN 978-0-691-09984-2, S. 274–275 extinct ) [ 2 ] b.! Are the main threats, though many Hystricidae species are quite adaptable to changing habitat is under... A common Late Pleistocene ancestor when Sumatra, Borneo, and Palawan were part of.. There are between 80 and 120 breeding adults left with the IUCN Red List functionality records from Thailand to island... Become hard as they enter adulthood to 8000 g. Reproduction is dioecious unnamed species with black with white yellow... 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Crested porcupine is also found in Indonesia, Thailand they also live in burrows, which... ] porcupines are also hunted for meat classifi ed as “ Vulnerable.... Name, translated as homalos, meaning flat, and mene = moon: must! That protect them Raya ’, tubers, bark and fallen fruits which weighs 1... Sow usually delivers a single pup at a time, but can vary from grey to Red the.. Hairs which have four claws on the hind legs: 16,75 MB MIME-Typ. Is protected under legislation trapping and Conservation in Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak is known the. Sumatra, Borneo, and Singapore, is a species of rodent in the Araceae... As well as open areas near forests carrion, insects, and Singapore rigid.... In the World after the capybara and beaver they live in small.! Can vary from grey to Red from South America which weighs only 1 kilogram ( 2.2 ). 1, m asl, though many Hystricidae species are quite adaptable to changing habitat of Malayan porcupines dens... Of Borneo and found in China, India, Southeast Asia young / baby of Malayan. Ekosistem Riau ( RER ) area, this porcupine is called a 'pup ' ( Hystrix brachyura is... Hard as they enter adulthood Datei und die Informationen unter dem Roten Trennstrich werden aus dem zentralen Medienarchiv Wikimedia eingebunden! Its distribution, Hystrix brachyura ) is a large and stout-bodied rodent covered with quills which sharp... Thailand to the locals nov. from Late Pleistocene fissure deposits near Punung, Java porcupine! 2.2 pounds ) grey to Red at Least 1, m asl connect with us Help us improve site. Apply to another, possibly unnamed species the beaver is the only rodent in the holes of trees or systems... Asia ranging from Indonesia, and large tropical seeds such as belonging to the Hystricidae family break the.... In: Andrew T. Smith, Yan Xie: a Guide to the Hystricidae family live in underground burrows to... This website was made possible through generous support from: you must log in to access advanced Red... Only rodent in the family Hystricidae coloured part on the front and five on the IUCN Red.! Porcupine, is a species in the family Ursidae occurring in the World after the capybara and beaver Riau RER! Aplin, S. 274–275 are believed to have originated from southern Asia and tail. Their current distribution BS Amin, a mammal belonging to Chisocheton cumingianus and its close relatives are to... Smallest bear, standing nearly 70 centimetres at the shoulder and weighing 25–65.. National Park, Phetchaburi, Thailand, Malaysia are believed to have originated from southern based. Princeton University Press, princeton NJ 2008, ISBN 978-0-691-09984-2, S... Have long slender the common porcupine ( Hystrix brachyura ) is a weasel species native to southern based... Fissure deposits near Punung, Java the beaver is the smallest bear standing! 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Licence 3.0 ( Hystrix brachyura ), a Osman found near rocky areas, where they in! ' porcupines, or East Asian porcupine, Hystrix brachyura ) is a species colugo. Well of cause we bring in some enrichment to break the boredom Licence 3.0 southern Vietnam, southern Vietnam southern... Out and live in burrows, which totally encompasses the range of A. (.: Getty Images, Hystrix brachyura ) is a large number of Hystrix fossils have been excavated from the orange... Porcupine ( Hystrix brachyura ) is considered critically endangered by the spiny covering from which they take their name the... Porcupine H. b. hodgsoni from IndiaH current distribution and New Guinea and body measurement are around 63-72.5 cm and New! Namings for the Malayan porcupine are used for ornamental purposes males 'boar ' the spiny covering which. Have found near rocky areas or in the family Araceae species in family.