Stella Ghervas, "Odessa et les confins de l'Europe: un éclairage historique", in Stella Ghervas et François Rosset (ed). This anoxic layer is responsible for the preservation of ancient shipwrecks which have been found in the Black Sea. Yassihöyük-1 encountered similar problems. , The 1936 Montreux Convention governs the passage of vessels between the Black, the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas and the presence of military vessels belonging to non-littoral states in the Black Sea waters.  The name Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos (Inhospitable Sea), first attested in Pindar (c. 475 BC), was considered an ill omen and was euphemized to its opposite, Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos (Hospitable Sea), also first attested in Pindar. The following water budget can be estimated: The southern sill of the Bosporus is located at −36.5 m (−120 ft) below present sea level (deepest spot of the shallowest cross-section in the Bosporus, located in front of Dolmabahçe Palace) and has a wet section of around 38,000 m2 (410,000 sq ft). Perhaps the most promising areas in deepwater archaeology are the quest for submerged prehistoric settlements in the continental shelf and for ancient shipwrecks in the anoxic zone, which are expected to be exceptionally well preserved due to the absence of oxygen. This layer is composed of cool, salty surface waters, which are the result of localized atmospheric cooling and decreased fluvial input during the winter months. Salinity increases from the western part of the Mediterranean Sea (36.5 0 / 00) to the eastern part (39 0 / 00) but it is remarkably reduced to 17-18 0 / 00 in the Black Sea due to enormous volume of freshwater brought by the Dneiper, the Danube etc. In the west the coast is generally small floodplains below foothills such as: the Strandzha; Cape Emine, a dwindling of the east end of the Balkan Mountains; and the Dobruja Plateau considerably further north. Inland seas and lakes. The main phytoplankton groups present in the Black Sea are dinoflagellates, diatoms, coccolithophores and cyanobacteria. The Black Sea is the world's largest inland body of water, and is the world's largest body of water with a meromictic basin. Because of the extreme stratification, it is classified as a salt wedge estuary. In coastal areas, the biological effect of these changes has been an increase in the frequency of monospecific phytoplankton blooms, with diatom bloom frequency increasing by a factor of 2.5 and non-diatom bloom frequency increasing by a factor of 6. , In December 2018, the Kerch Strait incident took place.  The deep waters do not mix with the upper layers of water that receive oxygen from the atmosphere. Tourism at Black Sea resorts became one of the region's growth industries. It is also known as "Himalayan black salt", Sulemani namak, bire noon, bit lobon, kala loon, or pada loon and manufactured from the salts mined in the regions surrounding the Himalayas. Denser, more saline water from the Aegean flows into the Black Sea underneath the less dense, fresher outflowing water from the Black Sea. The basin includes two distinct relict back-arc basins which were initiated by the splitting of an Albian volcanic arc and the subduction of both the Paleo- and Neo-Tethys Oceans, but the timings of these events remain uncertain. Illustration in a set of graphics prepared for a pilot assessment report on the Black Sea drainage basin, for the UNEP Global Impact on Waters Assessment (GIWA). As so many large rivers flow into the Black Sea, the surface waters have low salinity. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows:. The deep, anoxic water of the Black Sea originates from warm, salty water of the Mediterranean. This is a list of bodies of water by salinity that is limited to natural bodies of water that have … The Black Sea is bordered by Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine. This restriction was challenged by the Russian Navy from 1783 until the relaxation of export controls in 1789 because of the French Revolution.. Salinity (/ s ə ˈ l ɪ n ɪ t i /) is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water, called saline water (see also soil salinity).This is usually measured in (note that this is technically dimensionless). Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Learn how and when to remove this template message, International Transport Workers' Federation, "Black Sea Geography, Oceanography, Ecology, History", "Europa – Gateway of the European Union Website", "Unexpected changes in the oxic/anoxic interface in the Black Sea", http://www.blacksea-commission.org/_publ-ML-CH1.asp, http://www.oceansatlas.org/subtopic/en/c/922/, http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/oceanatlas/img/1132587048006_BSBasinPolitical.gif, "Cât a crescut populația în principalele zone metropolitane ale țării în ultimele două decenii", "Global Positioning System constraints on plate kinematics and dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus", "Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Black Sea: A test of depth-dependent stretching models", Geology and Geoarchaeology of the Black Sea Region: Beyond the Flood Hypothesis, "Erdogan Unveils Biggest Ever Black Sea Natural Gas Discovery", § 42. 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