Vyasa and 18 Puranas – a critical view. The Vedangas were sciences that focused on helping understand and interpret the Vedas that had been composed many centuries earlier. Kenneth Zysk (2012), Understanding Mantras (Editor: Harvey Alper), Motilal Banarsidass. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMacDonell2004 (. [190][191] The first hymn is a recitation that accompanies offering a Yajna oblation to Agni (fire) on the occasion of a marriage, and the hymn prays for prosperity of the couple getting married. Vedas are four in number. [170], There are two major groups of texts in this Veda: the "Black" (Krishna) and the "White" (Shukla). Whence, whence this creation sprang? [13], Vedas are śruti ("what is heard"),[14] distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered"). [48][49][50][51][52][note 5]. He gives 150 BCE (Patañjali) as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, and 1200 BCE (the early Iron Age) as terminus post quem for the Atharvaveda. "[233] Some Hindus challenge the authority of the Vedas, thereby implicitly acknowledging its importance to the history of Hinduism, states Lipner. [37][38] Each regional Vedic shakha (school) has its own operating manual-like Brahmana text, most of which have been lost. According to Michael Witzel, the initial codification of the Rigveda took place at the end of the Rigvedic period at ca. Mantras in the vedas. [166] corresponding to the early Kuru Kingdom. How many Avatars of Vishnu are narrated so far? 491–499. These auxiliary fields of Vedic studies emerged because the language of the Vedas, composed centuries earlier, became too archaic to the people of that time. Moriz Winternitz (2010), A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. 600 BCE). [32][33], Other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita or the Vedanta Sutras are considered shruti or "Vedic" by some Hindu denominations but not universally within Hinduism. [183] The Samhita layer of the text likely represents a developing 2nd millennium BCE tradition of magico-religious rites to address superstitious anxiety, spells to remove maladies believed to be caused by demons, and herbs- and nature-derived potions as medicine. [84] This provided an additional visual confirmation, and also an alternate means to check the reading integrity by the audience, in addition to the audible means. The Atharva Veda also dedicates significant portion of the text asking the meaning of a ritual. Strassburg 1899; Gonda, J. Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. page. [164] It is a compilation of ritual offering formulas that were said by a priest while an individual performed ritual actions such as those before the yajna fire. They contain hymns in praise of various gods and goddesses. [47] The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads, among other things, interpret and discuss the Samhitas in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute (Brahman), and the soul or the self (Atman), introducing Vedanta philosophy, one of the major trends of later Hinduism. Vedas are the Sruti texts because they were heard and discovered. 1200 BCE, in the early Kuru kingdom. "[79] Houben and Rath note that the Vedic textual tradition cannot simply be characterized as oral, "since it also depends significantly on a memory culture. [142][143] However, all printed editions of the Vedas that survive in the modern times are likely the version existing in about the 16th century AD. Vedas Om, the beginning of creation 1. There are 10552 mantras in Rigveda, 1975 in Yajurveda, 1875 in Samveda, and 5977 in Atharvaveda with a total of 20379 mantras in all the Vedas. The Puranas are a vast collection of Indian literature that cover a wide range of topics, such as legends and traditional folklore. There are 18 Maha Puranas (Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas), with over 400,000 verses. There are over 20,000 mantras in all vedas combined. In the early 19th century, Arthur Schopenhauer drew attention to Vedic texts, specifically the Upanishads. Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. 1500 to c. 500–400 BCE. Required fields are marked *, This article will further highlight the differences between Vedas and Puranas within the context of the. The Rig veda. [239], "Veda" and "Vedic" redirect here. "[115][116][note 19] The pūrva-kāņda (or karma-kanda), the part of the Veda dealing with ritual, gives knowledge of dharma, "which brings us satisfaction." [160], In the Samaveda, some of the Rigvedic verses are repeated. [128] According to Mookerji, while these truths are imparted to the student by the memorized texts,[129] "the realization of Truth" and the knowledge of paramatman as revealed to the rishis is the real aim of Vedic learning, and not the mere recitation of texts. Bhagavatah geeta,BrahmaSutras and Upanishads combinedly are called Prastaana trayam. The Aranyakas which is a text on rituals, ceremonies and symbolic-sacrifices. ",[150] the virtue of Dāna (charity) in society,[157] and other metaphysical issues in its hymns. Aspirants can refer to the below links to study from this segment: Difference Between Vedas and Puranas – Download PDF Here. [67], The Vedas were orally transmitted since their composition in the Vedic period for several millennia. Several authors refer to the Chinese Buddhist Monk I-Tsing, who visited India in the 7th century to retrieve Buddhist texts and gave examples of mnemonic techniques used in India: Staal: [this tradition of oral transmission is] "by far the more remarkable [than the relatively recent tradition of written transmission], not merely because it is characteristically Indian and unlike anything we find elsewhere, but also because it has led to scientific discoveries that are of enduring interest and from which the contemporary West still has much to learn.". Hinduism is the third-largest religion behind Christianity and Islam. [186] Many books of the Atharvaveda Samhita are dedicated to rituals without magic, such as to philosophical speculations and to theosophy. Ambedkar.[237]. Sukumar Dutt (1988) [First published in 1962]. The most notable of the smritis are the itihasa (epics). Veda, Upanishads and Puranas There are about 1.1 billion followers of Hinduism in the world. [21][22][23] The mantras, the oldest part of the Vedas, are recited in the modern age for their phonology rather than the semantics, and are considered to be "primordial rhythms of creation", preceding the forms to which they refer. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. In other parts, they show evolution of ideas, such as from actual sacrifice to symbolic sacrifice, and of spirituality in the Upanishads. AB Keith (2007), The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads, Motilal Banarsidass, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMahadevan1956 (. "[97], A literary tradition is traceable in post-Vedic times, after the rise of Buddhism in the Maurya period,[note 17] perhaps earliest in the Kanva recension of the Yajurveda about the 1st century BCE; however oral tradition of transmission remained active. the Iyengar communities), the word veda is used in the Tamil writings of the Alvar saints. There are four types of Vedas: The Rig Veda; The Yajur Veda; The Sama Veda; The Atharva Veda; There is 1 Maha Purana, 17 Mukhya Purana (Major Puranas), 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas) with over 400,00 verses: Each Veda has four subdivisions. Bhagavatam. How many Vedas are there? Mookerji also refers to the Uśanā smriti (81-2), which "states that mastery of mere text of Veda is to be followed up by its meaning" by discussing the Vedanta. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHarold_G._Coward1990 (. There are four Vedas called Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva). [168] Unlike the Samaveda which is almost entirely based on Rigveda mantras and structured as songs, the Yajurveda samhitas are in prose and linguistically, they are different from earlier Vedic texts. [129] Let drama and dance (Nātya, नाट्य) be the fifth vedic scripture. [146][147] The Rig Veda most likely was composed between c. 1500 and 1200. in Hinduism there are many Sacred Texts such as Vedas and puranas. [125] Mookerji concludes that in the Rigvedic education of the mantras "the contemplation and comprehension of their meaning was considered as more important and vital to education than their mere mechanical repetition and correct pronunciation. "[196] The Upanishads intend to create a hierarchy of connected and dependent realities, evoking a sense of unity of "the separate elements of the world and of human experience [compressing] them into a single form. Witzel makes special reference to the Near Eastern Mitanni material of the 14th century BCE, the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan contemporary to the Rigvedic period. [230], The various Hindu denominations and Indian philosophies have taken differing positions on the authority of the Vedas. This indigenous system of categorization was adopted by Max Müller and, while it is subject to some debate, it is still widely used. For more exam-related preparation materials, refer to the links given in the table below: Your email address will not be published. Puranas, on the other hand, are Smriti texts because they were written and remembered. [169] The Yajur Veda has been the primary source of information about sacrifices during Vedic times and associated rituals. English translations of the Samhitas were published in the later 19th century, in the Sacred Books of the East series edited by Müller between 1879 and 1910. Müller, Friedrich Max (author) & Stone, Jon R. (author, editor) (2002). [176] Two different versions of the text – the Paippalāda and the Śaunakīya – have survived into the modern times. [30], Vedas are called Maṛai or Vaymoli in parts of South India. [106], The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramashila. [71][note 8] As Leela Prasad states, "According to Shankara, the "correct tradition" (sampradaya) has as much authority as the written Shastra," explaining that the tradition "bears the authority to clarify and provide direction in the application of knowledge. There are four VEDAS 1.Rigveda. texts (meaning “that which is remembered). There are total 20379 mantras in the vedas. [141] That these methods have been effective, is attested to by the preservation of the most ancient Indian religious text, the Rigveda, as redacted into a single text during the Brahmana period, without any variant readings within that school. [68] Jack Goody has argued for an earlier literary tradition, concluding that the Vedas bear hallmarks of a literate culture along with oral transmission,[99][100] but Goody's views have been strongly criticised by Falk, Lopez Jr,. These auxiliary fields of Vedic studies emerged because the language of the Vedas, composed centuries earlier, became too archaic to the people of that time. [7][9][10] The Upasanas (short ritual worship-related sections) are considered by some scholars[11][12] as the fifth part. These are the primary texts of Hinduism. as for vedas, there are 3 or 4 depending on who u ask. The oldest dated to about 900 BCE, while the youngest Brahmanas (such as the Shatapatha Brahmana), were complete by about 700 BCE. Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al. [119] For Sayana, whether the mantras had meaning depended on the context of their practical usage. What do the Vedas deal with? "[80] The Vedas were preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques,[21][22][23] such as memorizing the texts in eleven different modes of recitation (pathas),[70] using the alphabet as a mnemotechnical device,[81][82][note 10] "matching physical movements (such as nodding the head)[disputed – discuss] with particular sounds and chanting in a group"[83] and visualizing sounds by using mudras (hand signs). Vishva Bandhu, Bhim Dev, S. Bhaskaran Nair (eds.). [104] The Sampurnanand Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript from the 14th century;[105] however, there are a number of older Veda manuscripts in Nepal that are dated from the 11th century onwards. The Vedangas developed towards the end of the vedic period, around or after the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. Sikh’s Dasam Granth written by Guru Gobind Singh has listed 24 Avatars of Lord Vishnu. PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University of New York Press. There are many Puranas and there are even new ones being created to this day. "[122] According to Galewicz, Sayana saw the purpose (artha) of the Veda as the "artha of carrying out sacrifice," giving precedence to the Yajurveda. However, there are about 19 main ones about to the main Hindu deities like Agni, Vayu, Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma. "[74], The emphasis in this transmission[note 9] is on the "proper articulation and pronunciation of the Vedic sounds," as prescribed in the Shiksha,[76] the Vedanga (Vedic study) of sound as uttered in a Vedic recitation,[77][78] mastering the texts "literally forward and backward in fully acoustic fashion. [68] Due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material (birch bark or palm leaves), surviving manuscripts rarely surpass an age of a few hundred years. –. [89] Sudhakar Malaviya and VG Rahurkar state the connection is closer in that the Puranas are companion texts to help understand and interpret the Vedas. Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press. see: For 1875 total verses, see the numbering given in Ralph T. H. Griffith. There are four Vedas- Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. There are several Holy Scriptures of the Hindus among them are the Vedas, Upanishads & the Puranas. [11][12] The texts of the Upanishads discuss ideas akin to the heterodox sramana-traditions. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. We find no single authoritative hindu holy book but many. Root cognates are Greek ἰδέα, English wit, etc., Latin videō "I see", German wissen "to know" etc. "[156] In terms of substance, the nature of hymns shift from praise of deities in early books to Nasadiya Sukta with questions such as, "what is the origin of the universe?, do even gods know the answer? [122] This conception of the Veda, as a repertoire to be mastered and performed, takes precedence over the internal meaning or "autonomous message of the hymns. 2.Yajur veda 3.Saama veda and 4.Adharvana vada. This article will further highlight the differences between Vedas and Puranas within the context of the IAS Exam. [note 2] Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Carvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools. Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman"[15] and "impersonal, authorless,"[16][17][18] revelations of sacred sounds and texts heard by ancient sages after intense meditation. [176][177] The Atharvaveda was not considered as a Veda in the Vedic era, and was accepted as a Veda in late 1st millennium BCE. Brihat-Trayi – 3 ancient medical scriptures -Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita & Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita. [92][94] According to Staal, as referenced by Holdrege, though the mantras may have a discursive meaning, when the mantras are recited in the Vedic rituals "they are disengaged from their original context and are employed in ways that have little or nothing to do with their meaning. They are Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvanaveda. [153], The books were composed by poets from different priestly groups over a period of several centuries between c. 1500 and 1200 BC,[note 1] (the early Vedic period) in the Punjab (Sapta Sindhu) region of the northwest Indian subcontinent. The puranic phase is associated with the great epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, and with the chronicles known as puranas. [130] The supreme knowledge of the Absolute, para Brahman-jnana, the knowledge of rta and satya, can be obtained by taking vows of silence and obedience[131] sense-restraint, dhyana, the practice of tapas (austerities),[116] and discussing the Vedanta. About the ancient Purana. [31][32] In some parts of South India (e.g. [note 1] Witzel notes that it is the Vedic period itself, where incipient lists divide the Vedic texts into three (trayī) or four branches: Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. According to our needs we had two sets of grammar, one for the Vedas (sanhita part) and the other for the Puranas and for common use, because the formation of certain words and their phrasing is different in the Vedas as compared to the language of the Puranas. [202], The six subjects of Vedanga are phonetics (Śikṣā), poetic meter (Chandas), grammar (Vyākaraṇa), etymology and linguistics (Nirukta), rituals and rites of passage (Kalpa), time keeping and astronomy (Jyotiṣa). The early Buddhist texts are also generally believed to be of oral tradition, with the first Pali Canon written many centuries after the death of the Buddha. [163], The Yajurveda Samhita consists of prose mantras. https://sites.google.com/a/vedicgranth.org/www/what_are_vedic_granth/the-four-veda/interpretation-and-more/construction-of-the-vedas?mobile=true, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Seer of the Fifth Veda: Kr̥ṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa in the Mahābhārata, The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools : The Social and Political Milieu, Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India – their religion and institutions, The Rigvedic religious system and its central Asian and Hindukush antecedents, The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools, Atharva Veda 2.32 Bhaishagykni, Charm to secure perfect health, The Development of the Female Mind in India, "Origin and Development of Ayurveda: A Brief History", "Rig Veda in UNESCO Memory of the World Register", "Changing Conceptions of the Veda: From Speech-Acts to Magical Sounds", "Redefining the authority of scripture: The rejection of Vedic infallibility by Brahmo Samaj", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, "Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state", "The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools: The Social and Political Milieu", "Autochthonous Aryans? 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