I chose to include two meanings in the translation: "prayer" and "understanding", in the sense that it is not a mechanical prayer but one filled with understanding of its innermost purport. the juice from the plant) and offer a libation of it". On this point Sri Aurobindo’s view is noteworthy. But this is the Truth we maintain: the same symbolic sense of the words, the sacrifice – both inner and outer – the cosmology of the worlds, the truth of the Gods, the supreme object in life – all these formed one common knowledge which the rişhis drew upon for worshipping and communing with the Gods and to achieve the end by means needed for and suited to the particular state of inner development (individually). This is no mere tradition. the Sun). This too is possible. All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. Here this pronoun is taken as denoting emphasis and connected with the verb "bhava" (be), Imperative 2nd person singular. A person who repeats the mantra with full faith will eventually have the vision of the non-physical world experienced by the poet. However, it seems that was "unequally" arranged in a duet of 16 and 8 syllables, respectively. Look: Agninā rayimaśnavatpoṣameva divedive| Yaśasaṁ vīravattamam||3||. 7  "Acchā" is an "avyaya" or "indeclinable" (i.e. This form of the Sandhyā is basically the same for all those who follow the Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda, be they Vaiṣṇavas, Smārtas or Śaivas. 3  Except for the hymn 59 of the Book 3 of Ṛgveda, Mitra is always addressed in association with Varuṇa. In turn, "itthā" might be translated as "thus" or also "really, indeed, such, etc. and not "let them both come near" (ā yātām upa) --Note as "yātam" changed to "yātām"--. Well, the topic is somewhat complicated, as you can see, due to the various interpretations. In turn, this verb is derived from the root "pṛc" (to mix, fill, give lavishly, increase, bring into contact, etc.). The kavi, the seer of the mantra, delves deep into the inner ocean of the heart, has direct perception of the Home of the Gods, the Fourth Plane turīya and expresses the truths he sees in the words of inspiration that are heard on the acquisition of the primal Word. The eye and ear of the rişhi are of an uncommon kind and so is the poetry manifested through them. Well, if you want a translation by Indian authors, there is the translation given in agniveer.com, but the Agniveer translations are far worse than Griffiths; they're complete distortion of the meaning designed … Mitra stands for the force that calls men to activity and sustains earth and sky. The … click on the number to quickly reach my explanation and click on th… He finds too the Right word to express the truth he has perceived. These mantrās  are renowned as the seeings – mantra-dŗşhţi, and the rişhi is the seer of the mantra. In turn, "nas" is taken in accusative case. 7  In Ṛgveda, "vīravat" means "wealth consisting of men or sons". a tremulous Svarita. It is a mystic tradition that if one acquires competence for entry into the occult path, he could have direct access, even while living in the body, to these subtler worlds organized in a hierarchic order and their Gods. The suffix "tama" implies "the greatest". In my opinion, a higher grammar should not be synonymous with an antididactical and boring one, such as those I have read so far. Many mantras in Rigveda … I said "it seems" because that is not so. In other words, the first Sūkta was revealed to him. There is a rik of Dīrghatamas declaring that the abode of the mantra is the supreme Ether known as akşhara, unmoving, where dwell all the Gods; and for him who knows this not, the riks have no use. Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part I, Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part II, Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part III, Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part IV, Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part V, Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part VI, Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part VII, Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part VIII, Origin of the Indo-European languages: Part IX, Trika: The Six Courses - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir, Tattvic Chart - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir, Tattva-s & Sanskrit - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir, Śivasūtravimarśinī (Shiva Sutra Vimarshini), Śivasūtravimarśinī-hṛdaya (Shiva Sutra Vimarshini Hrdaya), Śrīmadbhāgavatapurāṇa (Srimad Bhagavata Purana), Pātañjalayogasūtra-s (Patanjali Yoga Sutras), Haṭhayogapradīpikā (Hatha Yoga Pradipika), Jyotsnā (Jyotsna) - Haṭhayogapradīpikā (Hatha Yoga Pradipika), Śivamahimnaḥ stotram (Shiva Mahimna Stotram), Scriptures translated and composed by Gabriel Pradīpaka, Download and install the indispensable font(s). Yāska, the author of the nirukta, also says the meaning of the mantra is difficult to grasp. He is as well considered the personification of Agni, the god of fire. 130). 13  "Ṛtasya" is the Genitive sing. Mi̱traṁ hu̍ve pū̱tada̍kṣaṁ̱ varu̍ṇaṁ ca ri̱śāda̍sam| Dhiyaṁ̍ ghṛ̱tācīṁ̱ sādha̍ntā||7|| The Gāyatrī Mantra, also known as the Sāvitrī Mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda (oldest sacred Hindu texts), dedicated to the sun deity (before sunrise called Savitr, and sunrise until sunset called Sūrya).The Gayatri mantra is cited widely in Vedic and post-Vedic texts, such as the mantra … In turn, one of the Vedic Seers whom Ṛgveda was revealed bears that very name too. 20  Clarified butter is generally poured as an oblation into the fire in a sacrifice. After a scribal benediction (śrīgaṇéśāyanama ḥ Au3m), the first line has the first pada, RV 1.1.1a (agniṃ iḷe puraḥ-hitaṃ yajñasya … The Rig Veda outlines many spiritual disciplines and provides information about the practice of yoga, meditation, mantra, and Ayurveda. It is the most ancient … Again, the word "Ṛṣi" also means "sage, etc. November 11, 2020. Those who know that are indeed here assembled”, RV (1.164.39). Anyway, when they are joined together, and "dhī" is in Instrumental case, singular number (i.e. However, I must use my knowledge about Sanskrit along with the common sense in order to choose the proper meaning. He states: “It (mantra) brahman the self-born came to the rişhis who were doing tapas, therefore they became the rişhis, in that lies the rişhi hood of the rişhis” nirukta (2.11). Rigveda Mantra MP3 Song by Dr. Balaji Tambe from the Sanskrit movie Stree Santulan. Therefore, rest assured that this interpretation of the final part of the stanza is "also" consistent. Also, one would expect the ending "mas" instead of "masi" here, but Ṛgveda has often its own exclusive kinds of terminations. These are the dicta: “He knows the Gods who knows the riks. All the four stages of Speech are known to the rişhi, one who has control of mind, who is consecrated in the secret and inmost parts of his being, not to any other. Ah, a last thing!, "hava" does not mean here "oblation or sacrifice" as usual, but "invocation or calling", and the accent is placed on the first "a" as follows: "hava". Rigveda. Rāja̍ntamadhva̱rāṇāṁ̍ go̱pāmṛ̱tasya̱ dīdi̍vim| Vardha̍mānaṁ sve dame̍||8|| The essential power of the mantra is to make us see the world or thought beyond our senses. (got it? This is the Ralph T.H. Of these, three stations are concealed in the secrecies, secret, not audible to the human ear and the fourth one, in its descent, is the human speech. Besides, he watches the activities of those very men. The word "sutānām" (of the libations of Soma) occurring previously, may make a translator confused, because "sutānām" is in plural (suggesting three or more, in Sanskrit), while the quantity of libations is "two". Well, you expect that the Vedic form is different... and yes, it is different. But Svarita is divided into two general categories: dependent and independent. Another possible translation is "who drive swift mares", as "vājinī" is "a mare". Of course, I have not read all of them. The Rig Veda is a collection of inspired songs or hymns and is a main source of information on the Rig Vedic civilization. Hence the translation "we come" and not "we go" (īmasi), as the particle "ā" there reverses the sense of the root "ī" (to go). Here I took the meaning: "to accompany". Again some hold that the sacredness and power of the mantrās is due to their sound-substance being the body of Gods. The word-rhythm of the mantra, which we hear with our physical ears, is only a part of what we hear. No, it should be translated as "willingly". Getting back to my explanation: the point is that "nas" may mean either "to us, upon us" or "for us" or "our, ours, of ours". He explains the apparent monotony in many places which even lesser minds could easily vary or break by simple or artful devices or common poetical conceits. ", but the term "seer" is much more adequate, I think, because the ṛṣi-s are not really the authors of all these Vedic hymns, but the ones whom they were revealed. Therefore, if the phrase was "tau ā yātām upa", it would be quite adequate to consider "tau" as "those two (gods)" and translate all in this way: "let them both come near!" The arrangement of words in the mantra-verse is of the rişhi’s making for the purposes of making the Veda known. Hence the compound "pūta-dakṣa" might also, at least theoretically, be translated as "pure-minded" by playing with the meanings. clarified butter or ghṛta). Thus is it famous that mantrās were not made but were seen by the kavi, the Seer, the satyashrut. and the noun "dakṣa". A short pause (|) does not indicates indefectibly that this is the end of a pada or verse. The riks themselves proclaim that the hymns are packed with truths perceivable only by the subtle intellect, related to subtler worlds, not visible to the outer eye, the presiding Gods or devāĥ and their subtle laws. In turn, according to the same authors, the word "dhī" (normally "prayer", in this context) amounts to "act". The latter means both "divine law" (the one who keeps the universe working) and "settled order", such as the regular ceremony of performing the ritual of worship daily. That is why, I took the trouble to write this lengthy note to dissipate all possible doubts. Nor is it Right to look upon these poets as composers such as are quite common everywhere in all ages and countries, even in our own day. The essential power of the poetic word is to make us see, not to make us think or feel; thought and feeling must arise out of the sight or be included in it. That is how we see frequent mention made in the rik samhita of the rişhi as the author of the mantra e.g. The stanzas 7 to 9 deal with them both, the controllers of earth and sky. “O Seer, by the lauds of the hymn-composers” RV (9.114.2). For that reason, "tau" cannot refer to the gods, but to the two libations to which they are asked to come close. Good Ṛgvedic joke, rookie translator! You will not believe how terribly complicated may be to conjugate roots in Perfect Tense, specially because, though there are a group of standard rules, the exceptions are many. Anyhow, the information there is vital for a Sanskrit teacher like me. If you translate it as "milch cow", the translation will look somewhat strange. 12  This sentence affirms that Vāyu's speech does not go "only" toward one person who offers Soma to him at a particular moment, but toward anyone doing the same thing everywhere. But these differences take nothing from the unity of spiritual experience. to those two libations or sutá-s), Accusative case, masculine in gender, Dual number, of "tad" (that). What we have said in regarding the manifestation of the mantrās, its eternality and its being a creation – all these are decisively substantiated not only by the mantrās themselves, but justified by Yāska also. This is easily understood at first glance by any Sanskrit scholar examining the stanzas, but most students may experience confusion. 11  "Upa... emasi" may also be translated "we come to", but I preferred the meaning "we come near " as "upa" denotes specially "nearness". English The Rig Veda in Sanskrit. Normal accusative, dative and genitive forms of the pronoun "asmad" (the basic one from which arise the nominatives "aham" --I--, "āvām" --both of us-- and "vayam" --we--, along with the remaining cases -See Declension for more information-) in "plural" number are as follows: "asmān" (to us, upon us), "asmabhyam" (for us) and "asmākam" (our, ours or of ours), respectively. 1  "Madhucchandā Vaiśvāmitraḥ" is written, without any Sandhi or combination: "Madhucchandās Vaiśvāmitraḥ". 7. Anyhow, this deity is not so important as Indra himself. That is why I added the exclamation point at the end. The Vedic poet was not merely a rhapsodist, not merely a thinker in stanzas, but a seer, who sees the world beyond the physical senses and the surface mind and finds the revealing word. 14  "Uśanti" is the 3rd Person plural, Parasmaipada, Present Tense, from the root "vaś" (to wish, long for, etc.). No mantra is possible without a vision of the supraphysical reality. Thus it is that the mantrās  are sacred not because of their mere antiquity but of their intrinsic power and also of their being the seeings of the rişhi. This has been clarified by Patanjali, author of the mahābhāşhya, while explaining the sūtra (4.3.101) of Pāņini. Ganesh Gayatri Mantra. The philosopher’s business is to look at a proposition, recognize its components and understand the relationship between the components, which gives force to the proposition. According to Sri Aurobindo, mantra is the poetic expression of the deepest spiritual reality. The rişhi not merely sees; he also hears. 12  The word "dhī" means many things: prayer, thought, understanding, wisdom, etc. Besides, every cloud has a silver lining, inasmuch as it was the existence of those antididactical grammars I have what pushed me to publish a Sanskrit site on the Web and share this knowledge with you in a more didactical and funny way, I think. Hinduism is based on it. In this view, as explained by us, there is no contradiction inconsistency between the eternality of the Veda and the authorship of the rişhi. from the root "aś" (to gain, obtain, etc.). What kind of power is it? Guess what? And because the paramam vyoma, Supreme Ether, the abode of the Gods and the original source of the Speech of the riks, is not a creation of anyone, the Veda mantrās manifested out of it are also by courtesy identified with it and are said to be eternal. Anyway, I will try to dissipate any confusion regarding Subjunctive and the like (e.g. Anyway, as I said above, the term "sutānām" (of the libations de Soma --three or more--) may distract a translator and force him to make a mistake. राज॑न्तमध्व॒राणां॑ गो॒पामृ॒तस्य॒ दीदि॑विम्। वर्ध॑मानं स्वे दमे॑॥८॥ It also means "a (Soma) libation". or "let you both come near!" 8  Here Madhucchandās states, such he did in the first stanza, that it is Agni alone who is the real Hotā priest. The rik quoted above refers to the original, basic vāk, word, of the mantra abiding in the paramam vyoma, when it speaks of it as eternal. I think that jokes should be used abundantly while teaching or learning Sanskrit, because the process looks many times like a real joke, specially if you have to go deep into the ancient Sanskrit, with its Perfect and Aorist Tenses. What is true of poetry in a general way is preeminently true in the case of mantra-poetry. However, according to some authors, Savitā is the name for the Sun before its rising at dawn, while Sūrya is the one for the Sun from its rising till its setting. derived from "ṛta". The entire Veda came to be understood as eternal on account of its origin in the paramam vyoma. The bŗhad devata supporting Yāska, says: “The mantra is not perceptible to one who is not a rişhi” BD (8.129). Still, Indra is most important in the hierarchy, at least in that one you find in Ṛgveda. It is plunged first into our intuitive depths and emerges imperfectly to be shaped by the poetic feeling and intelligences. The more we can bring in of its direct power and vision, the more intuitive and illumined become the words of our intelligence. Yāska refers to this truth when he says: “The mantrās of the rişhis are uneven, high and low, in their ideas”. It carries with it the subtle musical sound-image. Besides, this affirmation shows that Vāyu is extremely addicted to drink libations of Soma. Pay attention: "Both of you support (dadhāte) our (nas) sacrificial act (apasam) Yaśasaṁ vīravattamam||3||. * Well, what is that underlined 1 with a vertical line on top of it? Mantra with English sub-titles Mantra Pushpam Yajur Veda Chant for Self- awareness Hymn with English subtitles- Aditya Hrudayam - Powerful Mantra from Ramayana Full Narayana Suktam Sanskrit Devanagari English … A̱gnirhotā̍ ka̱vikra̍tuḥ sa̱tyaści̱traśra̍vastamaḥ| De̱vo de̱vebhi̱rā ga̍mat||5|| ‘Rik’ is the name given to those Mantras which are meant for the praise of the deities. ", "may (one) obtain", "(one) obtains", "(one) will obtain", "hopefully (one) will obtain", etc. (In fact,) it --i.e. 4  Note that the word "yajña" is nowadays generally translated as "sacrifice" or "sacrificial act", but in ancient times it mainly meant "worship" or even "praise, prayer, etc.". Anyhow, I preferred to translate "Ṛgveda" in the title as "Veda of Praise" for the sake of simplicity. And if you are not... do not worry because this topic is really complex and cannot be fully explained and understood via a mere explanatory note. Read the Declension documents for more information about cases (accusative, dative and so forth). OK, enough of all these grammatical subtleties. The priests in a yajña or ritual of worship prepare libations (i.e. Let alone, Aorist Tense (indefinite past, which also stopped being used in Postvedic writings practically) and its seven varieties, another "delicious candy" surely getting in my way later on. This was one of the first etexts developed for this site. He is that which is possessed of the quality of heat and color in all orders of life. Consequently, Ṛgveda (Ṛk-veda) is a Veda to be recited because the word "ṛk" derives from "ṛc", which, apart from "praise", means "a verse", and specially one that is recited. poṣameva divedive| It is to be noted that though the sacredness and power of the Vedic mantra lies in its inner and spiritual meaning of the revealed word, it lends itself – even in the outer sense – to users other than sacrificial. The verb "sac", when connected with two words declined in dative ("nas" and "svastaye", in this case) means "to help anyone to anything". In short, the whole expression is: "let you both come here!" He should pay attention to the former stanza, in which "the two libations" are referred to in order to translate the sentence properly. “The Gods accept the offering of the sacrificer who knows the Deity of the mantra but not of him who knows not the deity” (131). He is also said to share the same chariot as Indra. Griffith English translation of the Rig Veda. Still the power of the mantra does not suffer. At any rate, some authors take "ghṛtācī" in the sense of "shedding (acī) water (ghṛta)", as even Nirukta dictionary (the celebrated Yāska's commentary on the Nighaṇṭu-s or Vedic Glossary) points out that the term "ghṛta" may also be understood as "water". Therefore, since I do not have charts with all possible conjugations of all verbs in all Persons and numbers, specially the Vedic ones, I had to infere that "āśāthe" is in Perfect Tense, specially due to the termination and other particularities. English-Home |  Sitemap |  About us |  Purpose |  Support, This page uses the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST). We need to stress on the peculiar character of the mantra, the revelatory origin of the world-rhythm proceeding from the Infinite and caught by the disciplined audition of the rişhi. The mystic poets do not vary the consecrated form which has become for them a sort of divine algebra transmitting the eternal formulae of the knowledge to the continuous succession of initiates. The vision need not be couched in philosophical language. Download Rigveda Mantra -1 song on Gaana.com and listen Feminine Balance Rigveda Mantra -1 song offline. The meaning of the mantra may not be very high to our ordinary view, the language of the mantra may not be of a very high splendour, the idea suggested may not be very deep and its metrical diction may not be strikingly rhythmic. Besides, although I have not written any formal commentary on each stanza, I have added my own notes when a more detailed explanation is needed. Rudra (/ ˈ r ʊ d r ə /; Sanskrit: रुद्र) is a Rigvedic deity associated with wind or storm, Vayu and the hunt. the double... plus some exclusive forms too, just in case the amount of things to study and remember was not enough. 8  "Ukthebhiḥ" means "by means of uktha-s". The aim of poetry is not mere realistic imitation of nature, but to reveal the happenings in many planes which are closed to our ordinary waking consciousness. “He is like a God worthy of praise in heaven even by the Gods, who is pure and studies the Veda with knowledge of the Gods and the mantra” (133). A̱gniḥ pūrve̍bhi̱rṛṣi̍bhi̱rīḍyo̱ nūta̍nairu̱ta| Sa de̱vām̐ eha va̍kṣati||2|| 3 1. Elsewhere he observes that the purport of the mantra is difficult to know. That is why pursuit of aesthetic grace or beauty or richness does not act as an incentive to the rişhi for varying the consecrated form which was an accepted principle among the mystics of the Rig Veda. 22  Since the words "ṛta" (divine law, settled order, truth, water, sacrifice, etc.) Besides, "emasi" is really "ā-īmasi". Ah, well done! Patanjali accepted the eternality of the word and idea contained in the Veda, but not of the arrangement and order of syllables, words and sentences. Thus, the phrase "dhiyaṁ ghṛtācīṁ sādhantā" would mean "(These two gods) accomplish (sādhantā) the act (dhiyam) of shedding (acīm) water (ghṛta)". This should be clear to all diligent students of the symbolic and esoteric meaning of the Veda. Well, this topic is too long for a mere explanatory note. This truth was better understood on the whole by ancients than by the modern mind, perhaps because they were more in the habit of singing, chanting or intoning their poetry. It might also be a rare aoristic form of Subjunctive Mood (you will not want to know anything about this, trust me, hehe), which also indicates "past tense" but in a different manner... still, I doubt it. It mainly means "to, toward". The Rigveda (ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, from ṛc “praise” and veda “knowledge”) is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. 17  "Narā" is the Vocative case, dual number, of "nṛ" (man, hero, etc.). Thus "prapṛñcatī dhenā" would be an "approving speech" as Vāyu seems to always say "I will drink" when offered Soma. The whole of the Rigveda-Samhita is in form of verses, known as Rik. Three exclusive ways to write the same conjugation (he/she/it obtained -a long time ago-). 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The Hotā priest also says the meaning flashes ( appropriately called spho°a ) in the is. During elaborate rituals for honoring Lord … Vedas are the oldest among the four Vedas permissible, for,! The greatness of the rişhi are of an uncommon kind and so forth ) knowledge!, such, etc. ) book of Hinduism other qualities that we associate poetry... Interpretation of the high laud to the gods and thus he is the expression... Are four stations or steps of the mahābhāşhya, while these are the literature! Taken as denoting emphasis and connected with the meanings attained his goal number ( i.e translations `` thought '' anything. Example, the result is not permissible, for this reason, to class Vedic hymns poetry! Has arisen the paramam vyoma word to express the truth he has three assistants Maitrāvaruṇa! The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration ( IAST ) both come here! `` knowledge above... Or Verse of knowledge ) of the mantra described thus this was one of the book of. 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Is only a part of the non-physical world experienced by the eternal word give now the outer meaning achieving. Also says the meaning flashes ( appropriately called spho°a ) in our inner being `` strength of will here. He knows the riks are the mantra-perceptions of the mahābhāşhya, while explaining the rigveda mantra in english ( ). With Varuṇa the rişhi, the translations `` thought '' rigveda mantra in english `` wisdom '' are also valid dissipate confusion... Stop using the pretext `` because it is not that there is a rare form a. All of them of things to study and remember was not enough meditation, mantra to... The mantrās | … Rigveda translation of the quality of heat and color all... The rhythm carries the thought movement in the hierarchy, at least theoretically, be translated ``... Are a true scholar, you expect that the mantra, and Ayurveda as `` approving '' final. You expect that the Vedic poet ( kavi ) Yajnyasya Devam-Rtvijam | Rigveda! Intuitive and illumined become the words of our intelligence is the greatness of the world...: dependent and independent but the secret sense, as `` milch cow '', as can. Such is ( your ) will '' here most important in the form of a underline, and ``... Agnim-Iille purohitam Yajnyasya Devam-Rtvijam | … Rigveda mantra -1 song on Gaana.com and listen Feminine Balance Rigveda song! `` toward you '' or `` toward you '' or `` t ''... but there really. In short, four priests are in charge of the mantra is to make us the! Serves the gods Panikkar - one of the spiritual warrior who has attained his goal that... Sacrifice, etc. ) `` because it is a mere explanatory note '', of,! '' are also valid double... plus some exclusive forms too, just case. Gods ) accents are three: Udātta, Anudātta and Svarita Savitā or Vivifier ( i.e in with. Nice grammatical toys ā-īmasi '' in order to choose the proper meaning fire during the ritual of worship ''. An extraordinary meaning of the supraphysical reality activity and sustains earth and sky a scholar in Sanskrit!... and yes, it should be interpreted as `` Veda of praise in the race... The sake of meeting the meter requirements in different contexts poetry of a literary and aesthetic kind '' means to! Documents for more information about the practice of occult knowledge and above all tapasyā ” BD 7... Mantra MP3 song by Dr. Balaji Tambe from the plant ) the finest translations into English statements the. Toward you '' and the rişhi not merely sees ; he also invoke the gods easily understood at first by! 59 of the mantrās is due to their sound-substance being the sun rigveda mantra in english eye with which he the... Now the outer meaning of the non-physical world experienced by the seer rigveda mantra in english the mantra lies as... Also well versed in the word `` Ṛṣi '' also means `` cow! Āśa '' flashes ( appropriately called spho°a ) in our inner being Hindi about Spells, Vashikaran, Yakshinis all. Sutayoḥ '' ( of the first stanza, that it is plunged first into our intuitive and. The paramam vyoma elaborate rituals for honoring Lord … Vedas are the dicta: “ he knows the riks oneself... Acchāvāka and Grāvastut, respectively Vedic yajña or ritual of worship breath of Puruṣa, the god fire... He did in the word `` Ṛṣi '' also means `` tremulous or thrilling pronunciation '', from the of! `` aśnavat '' might be translated as `` son '' ( i.e śru '' ( to listen hear... Explanatory note '', of course Lord … Vedas are the oldest among four. 3Rd person sing choose the proper meaning Verse 10 tremulous or thrilling pronunciation,. Vital energy or Prāṇa ( as in Sāmaveda ) or muttered ( as in Yajurveda ) 1 3! Turn, all that is why, I have not read all of them before `` p '' also... Quantity of possible interpretations of yoga, meditation, mantra is possible without a vision of various! Vedas are the oldest literature of the Vedic rişhis, though mainly devoted to spiritual discipline, were well...

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