Deontology comes from the Greek word for duty, deon. Duty-based ethics are usually what people are talking about when they refer to 'the principle of the thing'. [68] Bill Pennington, Trump Says N.F.L. [37] Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). [24] Michael W. Collins et al., Adolescent Sports Concussion, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19(2): 247-269 (2008); Mark R. Lovell et al., Recover from Mild Concussion in High School Athletes, Journal of Neurosurgery, 98(2): 296-301 (2003). [82] Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018). High school athletes are reluctant to report concussions. Deontology: Duty-Based Ethics. [89] Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012). Are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might adversely affect your moral reasoning if you are not careful? This yellow to reddish-brown translucent material has been used in a number of ways, including to make jewelry, in Egyptian burials, and in the healing arts. They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds. Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? Ramogi Huma, executive director of the National College Players Association, argued that schools should be required to fully inform [college] players about the risks of playing football now, including information about their susceptibilities to underlying health conditions. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. He saw the moral law as a categorical imperative—i.e., an unconditional command—and believed that its content could be established by human reason alone. This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war. [18] Ernest L. Abel, Football Increases the Risk for Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Perceptual Motor Skills, 104(3): 1251-1254 (20007). Why or why not? Children between the ages of 9 and 14 make up the largest cohort of football players in the U.S. You can hack the network and cancel the launch, but it’s against your professional code of ethics to break into any software system without permission. This ethical orientation uses processes and rules to guide ethical decisions. Deontological ethics holds that at least some acts are morally obligatory regardless of their consequences for human welfare. Five million cribs had been sold. In a study of 14,000 NFL players, researchers found that even head impacts insufficient to cause concussions can mount up over the years, leading to CTE and premature death. Its name comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. [83] Des Bieler, Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. [65] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Explain. Why or why not? If you apply Systematic Moral Analysis to the question of whether or not it is moral to continue to support and/or play football, do you get different results for different league categories and age groups? In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek: δέον, 'obligation, duty' + λόγος, 'study') is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action. Youth football players average 240 head impacts per season. Explain. 1. [30] Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015). [15] Everett J. Lehman et al., Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players, Neurology, 79(19): 1970-1974 (2012). It is a concept which is based on a person’s obligation or duty to treat others with respect. Are you aware of comparable situations around the world where individuals and corporations that wish to be moral buyers should be similarly wary, knowing that their purchase price might aid the seller’s bad acts? (Roughly, a deontological theory looks at inputs rather than outcomes.) Deontology Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. Is your opinion altered by the fact that the scientist quoted above is the neurologist for the Michigan State University football team? In the principles of deontology, an action is only regarded as morally good not because the result of the action is good but because of some characteristics of the action itself. [58] Other people believe that media discussions have impeded needed change in minimizing sports violence. Is it always a consideration that buyers should take into account? [4] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html. Rossian deontology postulates a plurality of basic moral principles, such as the principle not to harm people and the principle of promise keeping. Deontological theories are normative theories. Despite its strengths, rigidly following deontology can produce results that many people find unacceptable. It just requires that people follow the rules and do their duty. [90] J.S. This approach tends to fit well with our natural intuition about what is or isn’t ethical. A political issue? See also Ann C. McKee et al., The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain, 136(1)): 43-64 (2013)(study of donated brains of 64 athletes found “the stage of [CTE] correlated with increased duration of football play, survival after football and age at death” for 34 football players). Deontologists primarily define what is “good” or “right” as a function of behavior and the context in which that behavior occurs. Ethicists Edward Spence defines ethics as 'a set of prescriptive rules, principles, values and virtues of character that inform and guide interpersonal and interpersonal conduct' (Spence and van Heekeren, 2005, p. 2). 2. Deontology advises not to violate this rule. Deontology, one of the most influential ethical frameworks proposed by Immanuel Kant, is focused on binding rules, obligation and duty (to family, country, church, etc. The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of theGroundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seekout” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics ofmorals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priorimoral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times andcultures. Deontology does not always, in fact, almost never, equates the ‘right’ with the ‘good’. Why or why not? [6] Mayo Clinic, at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921. Some take the view that the NFL has acted like the tobacco industry did when it was confronted with lawsuits seeking to prove to juries that smoking caused cancer. [13] Michael L. Alosco et al., Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 7: 33-40 (2017). Moralists have never claimed all deception is wrong, but some have claimed that all lying is wrong – and even if we don’t agree with their claim, we c… [14] Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). One expert said “It really seems right now that if your [football] practices are highly controlled and reduced as much as possible and you only play four years of high school, your [CTE] risk is probably pretty low.”. Utilitarian? Autonomy is concerned with individuality and a person's unique wishes and values. They do not presupposeany particular position on moral ontology or on moral epistemology.Presumably, a deontologist can be a moral realist of either thenatural (moral properties are identical to natural properties) ornonnatural (moral properties are not themselves natural propertieseven if they are nonreductively related to natural properties)variety. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. [26] James P. Kelly et al., Concussion in Sports: Guidelines for the Prevention of Catastrophic Outcome, JAMA, 266(20): 2867-2869 (1991). ), rather than results or consequences. [17] Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players, Neurosurgery 57(4): 719-726 (2005). The term deontology is derived from the Greek deon, “duty,” and logos, “science.”, In deontological ethics an action is considered morally good because of some characteristic of the action itself, not because the product of the action is good. The NFL and universities, among others, urge no rash actions until there is more concrete proof of a causal link between concussions and adverse health outcomes. Deontological? The rightness or wrongness of an act or rule is, at least in part, a matter of the intrinsic moral features of that kind of act or rule. Students who are a big follower of the science of morality and pursuing their course in psychology or literature have to deal with the different types of assignments on deontology. Some people accuse the media (and others) of hysterically overhyping the dangers of tackle football to the brain. [35] Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? Is this ever a consideration that buyers should take into account? We have an incomplete understanding of the extent or distribution of pathology required to produce neurological dysfunction or to distinguish diseased from healthy tissue, with the neuropathological changes reported in apparently asymptomatic individuals.”[33], Neuropsychologist Munro Cullum argues: “I worry the pendulum has swung too far. They have a duty to preserve the players’ health, but simultaneously feel pressure to get players back out on the field so the team can win. Discuss your reasoning. If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like? [35]  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.[36]. The first great philosopher to define deontological principles was Immanuel Kant, the 18th-century German founder of critical philosophy (see Kantianism). See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005); [9] Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015). The moral philosophy behind deontological ethics suggests that each person has a duty to always do the right thing. Corrections? Don’t cheat.” Deontology is simple to apply. Actions that obey these rules are ethical, while actions that do not, are not. The point … Bry believes that this will never happen. A 2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. One’s actions are either right or wrong in themselves. MORAL INQUIRY Ronald F. White, Ph.D. To determine if actions are right or wrong we do not look at the outcome in deontology. [67] Adam M. Finkel & Kevin F. Bieniek, How Public Helath Science Evaluates Evidence, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(3): 564-589 (2019). [38] Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. A 2017 study found CTE in 21% of donated brains of deceased high school football players. [28] Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2. They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player. In essence, fulfilling one’s obligations is ethical, no matter what the impact will be on society. Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.”[31] No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. It is made from the words deon, which means duty and logos, which stands for study or science. [85] Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020 (quoting Huma). We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. [58] Daniel Engber, Concussion Lies, Slate, Dec. 21, 2015, at https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html; Kevin Lomangino, Journalists Drop the Ball on Big Concussion/CTE Story, HEALTHNEWSREVIEW.ORG, Jan. 19, 2018, at https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/; [59] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Need to continue and budget and run money through the state of Oklahoma. ” of deceased high and. As a categorical imperative—i.e., an unconditional command—and believed that its content could be established by human reason alone has... Conforms to relevant duties, principles, such as “ Don ’ t cheat. deontology. 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