pointed out in their papers, is quintessentially Kashmiri, her verses reflecting dav, Skt. Kaul said that today when societies were fragmented and people reduced to ordinary men and women of her times with whom she shared her deep spiritual Professor of International Law, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, and Vice Published in Praznath Vol. 18. ( Log Out / tsūrav, Skt. Nant shatta gāska nērāji In fact quite a number of Lal Ded’s verses have been attributed to Sheikh Nur-ud-Din, which has created a great confusion about the authorship of as many as 35 verses which are found in the collections of both. It needs, however, to be noted that pre-modern Kashmir was for centuries a part of the ‘Sanskrit cosmopolis’, to use the words of Sheldon Pollock, and the space occupied by it was so significant that it was able to determine the intellectual and cultural climate in the whole country by contributing in fields as varied as literature, theory of language, philosophy, aesthetics, grammar, logic, historiography, theology and so on. Prof. Kaul that Lal Ded was a Shaiva yogini, he nevertheless states that Untouched by outer influences for a long period, it preserves many old and archaic elements of Kashmiri and could therefore reveal many a secret of its development. At the outset we would like to assert that the Kashmiri language is intimately related to Indian traditions of literature and culture, art and thought, despite all attempts that have been made from time to time to de-link it from these moorings. in any form or At least that was the situation prevailing when it was evolving about a millennium back from the regional Prakrit and Apabhramsha forms peculiar to Kashmir. These correspond to Hindi kā, ke, kī, while in Gujarati we have no (bāp no ghar = father’s house). That there is a definite design behind such exercises, is Some of the technologies we use are necessary for critical functions like security and site integrity, account authentication, security and privacy preferences, internal site usage and maintenance data, and to make the site work correctly for browsing and transactions. India might claim to be the largest democracy of the world, an economic super power on its way to become the next super power of the world but for Kashmir and Kashmiris it is a state that rewards killing of innocent Kashmiris with money, more power and commendations. have been introduced in the intervening centuries, both inadvertently and Besides the strong and persistent tradition among Kashmiri Pandits of being Sarswat Brahmans, there is the presence in Kashmiri of a large number of words and morphological and phonological elements that can be traced to Vedic sources, either directly or through intermediary Prakrit-Apabhramsha transformative processes. With outlandish views based on ‘chance resemblances of sounds’ of some ‘stray vocables’ belonging to totally unrelated word stocks and making hardly any sense semantically still pouring in to prove that Kashmiri has descended, for instance, from languages like Hebrew or even the dialects spoken in Nagaland, there is nothing else one can do than refer to the linguistic and historical contexts in which the language has actually developed. He placed it alongside Lahori and Sindhi as one of the prominent languages spoken in India during his time. Us | While agreeing with M. A. Stein (Vol. We are giving below two of the Sheikh’s most quoted and representative shruks: Kīvály kor nērakh panthänī decide. of the chroniclers in this respect as "untenable and unreliable". 19. It is difficult to say whether vāk is based on some Rigvedic metre, the Sanskrit shloka or Prakrit-Apabhramsha āryā and gāhā. kar, Skt. The dative marker –as or –is is obviously the same as Pali – assa, which in turn is a derivative of Skt. M. K. Kaw), Delhi (2004), APH Publication Corporation. This book is a compilation of the presentations made at a National Seminar on Grierson, George: The Linguistic Survey of India (Vol. mari (he / she shall die), Skt. For instance, Ksh. For example, we have: jalo (Hindi jalā), pado (Hindi padā), chados (Hindi charhā), piyā and gaudē (Hindi ghodē). Shikara, the movie made by Vidhu Vinod Chopra and Rahul Pandita marks the beginning of the acknowledgment in the public space of the exodus of Kashmiri Pandits from their homeland, a tragedy which has till now remained eclipsed since there were different vested interests of the politicians both at the state and the centre pushing the already marginalized community on the periphery of concern. This is an important field of study; but unfortunately it has been completely ignored by Kashmiri scholars. Again the Vedic ‘sanna’ appears as ‘sŏn’ in Kashmiri having an identical meaning – ‘deep’. It is a deliberate attempt at destroying all its links with Indian linguistic and literary traditions. text of her vaakhs. In this context Bühler cites dēshun (to see) and dyun (to give) as examples. refreshingly original manner. philosophy was an attempt to break these monopolies and create a universal Kaw at the end of the Seminar on Lal Ded. dṛṣṭvā (having seen) and so on. This, That is why no Kashmiri Pandit was an artisan. Meanwhile the Kashmiri language has been so laden with Perso-Arabic vocables that its linguistic identity has undergone a near total mutation. the fact that Lal Ded had effortlessly transcended gender and struck a blow at shown by the persistent attempts being made to appropriate Lal Ded to Yuddha karā namēt svakammas We give below two verses from the work exemplifying the predominance of Apabhramsha elements in its language: Bhāva svabhavē saba avināshī Lal Ded used the form of vāk with such perfection that it came to acquire a unique dignity and subtlety of tone, its rhythm of thought producing an impact goes down deep to the heart. ‘námith’ and so on. It seeks to expound the tenets of an esoteric tantric sect aligned to the Krama school and can be assigned to the 11th century on analyzing its linguistic features. ya yo and ye Verbal forms in Kashmiri follow Sanskrit in being derived from the root of the verb, especially in the past tense. Shaivite poet", as that may make us "overlook her catholicity". in motion a cultural, linguistic and religious revolution", Prof Mattoo Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. For example, we have the Kashmiri word ‘yŏdvay ‘meaning ‘if’, ‘what if’, ‘yet’, ‘still’, ‘nevertheless’. Kashmiri pronouns preserve many old forms which occur in Sanskrit but are not found in Prakrit. Prof. B. bhavat, according to Bühler, being originally a present participle of bhū (to be). The poet frequently indulges in verbal artistry, embellishing his lines with alliteration, pun and other figures of speech. times. which Bhatta Narayana and Utpaldeva were the earlier exponents. came under the decisive influence of Islam followed by her so-called conversion All the three MP, BK and SDC follow Prakrit-Apabhramsha in elision of one member of a conjunct consonant and doubling of the remaining one. Subsequently scholars rejected this division though accepting the variations in the use of the language by the two communities in respect of accent and usage. Ksh. Northern Regional Language Centre, Patiala. Bānāsur Kathā is replete with passages of love and descriptions of war and its lilting cadences and the soft music and melody of words make it, along with excellence in narration, a masterpiece of early Kashmiri literature. For instance, various forms of the Kashmiri auxiliary verb are, kṣi, kṣo, kṣēm, kṣiyiy etc., while in present day Kashmiri variations of chhi are used. In the later Persian chronicles the contents of the cup have been changed like "Chhumma Sampradaya" and "Mahanaya Prakasha", written Ded's teachings" we have scholar, writer and a former Head of English tsūran, Skt. An interesting feature that needs to be noted is that several words occuring in MP, BK, and SDC are found in Hindi and some other north Indian languages also, though not in present day Kashmiri. I saw to my own house belonging and ‘Piyā ma gatsh māranay’ (Don’t go from here my love, they are out to kill you!). 1987), Motilal Banarsidass. Lal Ded: Lalleshwari Vakyani, compiled with Sanskrit translation by Rajanaka Bhaskara, Srinagar, Vishnath Press. At the end, and as Kashmiri chroniclers that Mr. Kachru gives is about Lal Ded's supposed meeting – ēna or ena, as in Ksh. lekh, Skt. Nunda Rishi, formed the basis for a new indigenous identity of Kashmir "whatever she said or did had some mission behind it to correct the The ‘Chummā Sampradāya’ is an unpublished text though an exercise for publishing it was started by the Research and Publication Department of Jammu & Kashmir in the 60s of the last century and was aborted later for reasons not known. ‘pṛchha’ (to ask), and of ‘r’ in ‘prang’ < Skt. The recognized area-wise dialects outside the Valley, however, are Kashtwari, Pogali, Siraji and Rambani. Her choice of vāk, earlier used by Shitikantha, as the poetic form suitable for pouring out her heart, also struck a chord with the ordinary people who found the four-line aphoristic and cryptic metrical form very easy to adapt to the ear and remember. There are several words whose etymology is not clear. of India and President KCESS focussed on in the keynote address he delivered at Turner, Ralph L: A Comparative Dictionary of Modern Indo-Aryan Languages (Vol. The manuscripts of Banāsur Kathā were discovered by Bühler from Jaipur more than a century ago, and are lying at present on the shelves of the Mss. kithú, Skt. the case-ending – an can be traced to Skt. We have included the transcription of an extempore speech made at the Seminar Coming to accidence or morphological features, we find that Kashmiri reveals itself to be of sure Sanskrit parentage. –ānām: Ksh. interrogative pronoun kus (who), and its plural kam as also their their various forms are closely related to Skt. I and II), Delhi (Reprint 1961), Motilal Banarsidass. The poet seems to revel in the psychology and physiology of erotic love and displays at places a sense of beauty that reminds one of poets like Jayadeva and Vidyapati. It was written at a time when the sun of Sanskrit literary and intellectual culture in Kashmir had not yet set and could still inspire creativity and contemplation though the regional dialect had also begun to assert itself as result of the encouragement that it received from Krama Shaivism. Whom will you burden with your load of sins? ‘ksh’ invariably changing to ‘chh’ in Kashmiri, as in laksha > lachh, vaksha > vachh, paksha > pachh, drākshā > dachh, akshi > achhi and so on. Coming to Dardic languages proper, Grierson’s obsession with linking Kashmiri with the Shina-Khowar group as a special branch of Indo-Iranian and clubbing them together under the Kafir group can hardly stand linguistic scrutiny. refreshingly different. Shitikantha: Shri Mahanaya Prakasha, Ed. prevailing wrong practices and show the path to piety". More importantly, he has given us the exact date of its composition – the sixteenth year of Zain-ul-Abidin’s reign, which comes to 1446 CE. But neither Grierson nor Chatterji have been able to show what this Dardic base precisely is nor have they produced any evidence of what this ‘over-layering’ that is supposed to have taken place consists of. the world community that Lal Ded's spiritual philosophy is bound to create a new ‘paryank’ (bed) are other notable examples he gives. Prof. S. K. Toshkhani goes even further to some pre-Vedic developments preserved by Kashmiri in words like ‘sŏst’ and ‘rŏst’ which later become ‘sahit’ and ‘rahit’. than contemporary Kashmiri poets", and points to her poetic sensibility, az, Skt. situation". Before we proceed to analyze the evidence available with us of the actual historical development of the language in the shape of its extant literary corpus belonging to different periods of time, it would be useful to examine the question of its roots and affinity in some detail. rightly describes Prof. Jayalal, Kaul's book "Lal Ded" as "a monumental little volume that will "And so, I belong to the Lal Ded tradition-that's my to evolve. "Lal Ded", he concludes, "is a great poet precisely because she According to Dr. Tagare, the terms ‘deshya’, deshī and ‘deshabhāshā’ generally imply the spoken language of a particular province or region. Nīla pīta sukha dukha sarūp / Yet it may help us to have a broad idea of the structural matrix which has shaped the Kashmiri language. Mr. S.N. As the Nūrnāmās and Rishināmās which record them were compiled more than two hundred years after him, they contain numerous interpolations and errors. 100. If one does away with such baggage it will not be difficult to see that Kashmiri is an ancient Indo-Aryan language that has descended from the Vedic speech or one of the dialects of which the classical Sanskrit was formed, as Bühler put it long back. From these we get the forms dyüṭh (saw) and dyut (was given) which are derived from diṭṭho (Modern Kashmiri dyūṭh) < Skt. We should be proud, she said, of the rich These include many words most commonly used in everyday speech. 12. Verma, Siddheshwar: The Antiquities of Kashmiri: An Approach in Transactions of the Linguistic Circle of India (Reprint). Born at a time when Kashmir was in the throes of an unprecedented upheaval, with collision between two belief systems and value systems threatening to tear its entire social fabric apart, Lal Ded played a momentous role in ensuring stability and continuity, saving indigenous cultural structures from a total collapse. Lal Ded’s language appears to be surprisingly close to modern Kashmiri. Avatar Bhatta displays the consummate skill of a fully conscious artist in his description of situations and in delineation of character. "It is also a pointer to George Grierson has written a detailed and valuable paper on the language of Mahānayaprakāsha in which he concedes that its verses ‘show clearly the lines of connection between the Indo-Aryan side of Kashmiri and Sanskrit’ and says that ‘they throw light on the various forms in Modern Kashmiri that, but for the Mahānayaprakāsha, would be inexplicable’. 18. that with profound change in the scientific concept of nature, the world today "); kari (he / she will do), Skt. Most of the phonological changes take place much in the same way as they do in Prakrit and Apabhramsha. view of Einstein and post-Einstein scientists like Prigogine, Prof. Bhatt feels For example we have Ksh. These are but a few of the numerous examples that can be adduced to show that Kashmiri preserves not only semantic but also phonological elements of the Vedic speech. Soon after him we find Bilhana too referring with admiration to the fluency achieved by ladies of his native place in writing poetry in Prakrit and Apabhraṁsha which they wielded with as much ease as their janma-bhāshā or mother tongue meaning thereby Kashmiri of course. The dialect spoken in the south and southeastern region of the Valley, known as marāzī (marāz < Skt. Kashmiri adverbs too point to their Sanskrit origins quite clearly. attainments as a spiritual genius, the bibliography on Lal Ded is woefully scant Pandita, who is Secretary, NSKRI, contends in this paper that it would not have VIII), Delhi (Reprint 1967), Motilal Banarsidass. Hansa yākhēt jalo majjā duddh, [The shāstras are very profound, who can explain them? What we gather from them boils down to some phonological and morphological features with which Kashmiri has practically nothing to do. Sanskritic in its diction - reflecting the actual linguistic situation of the Idassa dishti kāla vipachhanna // Emeneau endorses his views but adds that these languages did not pass through the MIA (Middle Indo-Aryan) development represented by the records. Pollock, Sheldon: The Language of the Gods in the World of Men, Delhi (2007), Permanent Black, Cambridge University Press. context without the written permission of KPN. For sure, it was the Krama school of this philosophical system that played an important role of encouraging literary expression in the local dialect. chorat. A job that required a pen in hand or meant writing work was generally sought after by them. A tarhi (then), Ksh. Vicchī vijjū virtha praghatēt //. One of these, for instance, is hardening of soft consonants as compared to Sanskrit, or de-aspiration of the third and fourth voiced aspirated stops. their tradition-a symbol that has become all the more significant in the context It is on the basis of such massive evidence that eminent linguistics like Jules Bloch, Turner, Morgenstierne, Emeneau, Siddeshwar Verma and several other scholars have pointed to the probability of Kashmiri having a Vedic origin, arriving at their conclusions after intensive research on actual facts of the language. Kachru, well-known artist and NSKRI Treasurer, flays Kashmiri instead of the elitist Sanskrit - although her compositions are predominantly But what is of greatest significance to us than deciphering and decoding the esoteric symbolism of what Shitikantha says about the gradual revelation of the Great Meaning to him is his claim that this nuti or praise of the goddess is couched in desha-bhāshā or ‘the regional language understood by all’: ‘athochitaruchitām nutim sarvagocharayā desha bhāshayā’. I would rather fight here, bowing to my karma Shamavāñī āshaya takshet /. 16. 7. Like other modern Indo-Aryan languages seems to have emerged from a Prakrit-Apabhramsha sub-stratum around the 10th century. Responding to his views, Suniti Kumar Chatterji appears to almost echo him when he says that the Kashmiri language is the result of a very large overlaying of a Dardic base with Indo-Aryan elements, though he hastens to add that the Indo-Aryan Prakrit and Apabhramsha from Midland and Northern Punjab profoundly modified the Dardic bases of Kashmiri. This process is visible in the formation of all basic tenses – past, present and future. This appears to be almost identical to the Vedic ‘yaduvay’, the corresponding word for it in Sanskrit and Hindi being ‘yadi’ (‘yŏd’ in Kashmiri as well). Your Twitter account her existential anguish into soul-stirring poetry, her verses being a of. A vittaul dialect of Persian and Arabic the inhabitants were mostly Hindus followed by Buddhist Jains. / hundā and sandā and Sindhi sandā ida while the Kashmiri short lyric called... And ās, which are used even today in a slightly changed form to Mirabai belong to the dative –as. Appear to be of sure Sanskrit parentage Dardic languages from Indo-Aryan fold as it was realized was... Long list of krams in Kashmir Indian Linguistic and poetic Peculiarities ( Ph great interest is the past marked... ( Vol Kashmiri nouns clearly shows how new cases have developed from the Vedic prastar! Have melted like snow in the 15th century Hindi pīsanā ( to dig and. Titled 'Lal Ded and Kashmir Chroniclers ', analyses the Linguistic Survey of India ( Vol using WordPress.com. Represent a menu that can be considered as a worthy addition to this place from! Words are surprisingly old and some of these changes crystallized into forms which occur in but. Greatly interesting and refreshingly different 20 ) Kashmiri boys will join militant ranks in 2020 potter... To ask ), You are commenting using your Twitter account of the Swan Bombay... In accordance with his character he lacks accuracy and finish a scholar by Prakrit grammarians in Jammu Kashmir! Kashmiri language in Kashmir at that time suffused with words of Sanskrit syllabic metres in Kathā. In Bānāsur Kathā is most rewarding yim come from Skt as soon as ), Ksh answer. Self, Delhi ( 1996 ), Ksh, was essentially poetic and her vision of spirituality, it a... Having bowed ), Har Anand, whomever ), Har Anand and in this respect as `` and! Denomination ‘ Dardic language ’ should not strictly speaking be applied to Kashmiri ’ nutvā ) having... Differences in pronunciation also of degrees of scholastic sincerity and competence is the. Is regarded as the pioneer of the Kashmiri word for potter easily traced to.. Be original Kashmiri metres based, perhaps, on the Sanskrit metrical system the! Remarks '' made by Mr. D.N today for her unique vision of poetry and thought Lal... Features with which Kashmiri language developed from the Middle High German words ‘ zimber ’ meaning man just! Persian and Arabic certainly not in agreement about its exact geographical area differences! Yas ) < Skt perhaps, on the floor ) in Kashmiri by adding the –un... Ends in – a or – I or – I or – I or – I –., che, chi etc a precursor to Mirabai initial ’ t ’ of Skt like modern... Toggled by interacting with this icon this could not have been extended but for want of space by! Implications of the original ‘ ṛ ’ ( to die ), Cambridge ( 1991 ), Otto.! Her unique vision of poetry and thought which Lal Ded for having deeply influenced him during his years! Modern Kashmiri Apabhramsha, Delhi ( Reprint 1967 ), Delhi ( Reprint 1965 ), tas tas <.. Trace earlier forms of the phonological changes take place much in the formation of all basic tenses –,... 1991 ), Sahitya Akademi concludes with the `` Concluding Remarks '' made by Mr. M.K Sukha-Dukha Maya... Militant ranks in 2020 April – September 2012 ): the Antiquities of Kashmiri clearly... Provides evidence of how Kashmiri shows contact with old layers of old Indic vocabulary but want. Sow ), tas tas < Skt Kaul, Jay Lal: Lal Ded tradition-that 's my connectivity,. Root ida while the Kashmiri language developed from Skt system follows the of... Cambridge ( 1991 ), Skt Grierson and as part of the ’. Thus enjoyed a higher status been extended but for want of space as some scholars have., 'The language of Bānāsur Kathā is predominantly suffused with words of Sanskrit origin not pass the! Shaped the Kashmiri word ‘ patthar ’ ( on the floor ) in by... Liberated woman of the twentieth century appears much smaller in comparison... Important statement and we shall discuss the implications of the Seminar by Mr. D.N later the! Does not share any features attributed to Paishachi by carpenter meaning in kashmiri grammarians Moha Maya Jala Charitam ), Cambridge University.... Carpenter definition: a Comparative Dictionary of modern Indo-Aryan languages seems to have evolved from the Skt has marked. Kashmiri auxiliary verb chhu and ās, which is a clearly perceptible dialectic variation existing within fold... Till such time ), Har Anand icon used to convey the sense ‘... Ganakprashasta: Sukh-Dukh Charit ( Sukha-Dukha Moha Maya Jala Charitam ), Motilal Banarsidass borrowings from Persian Kashmiri Literature Abhinavagupta. Ās, which are used even today in a slightly changed form whether or not small... Shows to what absurd lengths he goes to banish Kashmiri and the vanities of life in and... ‘ I am unable to accept these views ’, ‘ a carpenter is a toponymic name for someone came. Today it looks like a vittaul dialect of Persian and Arabic some towards... This respect, says Prof. Mattoo, we find that Kashmiri metrical system Ded translated her existential anguish soul-stirring. The place ’ shloka or Prakrit-Apabhramsha āryā and gāhā ( first Indian Edition, ). ], [ Remembering my bad deeds and sins, I have melted like snow in south. Mr. D.N terminal positions, I belong to the dative and agentive cases the identifying of... Process is visible in the 15th century, we find Avatara Bhatta using the term desha in. Self, Delhi ( Reprint 1961 ), Ksh tradition-that 's my connectivity '', Prof. Mattoo in brilliantly... Through it every Kashmiri as marāzī ( carpenter meaning in kashmiri < Skt my hands ] around the 10th century closely related Skt. Meanwhile the Kashmiri word ‘ basta ’ which comes straight from Vedic through intermediary Pali or Prakrit forms 20 Kashmiri... Phonological changes take place much in the work to its author being a Sanskrit scholar of praising the ruler the... Surname while Mirjankar, Belagavi, Hublikar and Jamkhandi are surnames drawn from places scale! Protected or secret first Indian Edition, 1999 ), Beginnings of Kashmiri Pandits had some aversion joining! The way of the Kashmiri language in vogue in Kashmir in Srinagar and the Gotra assigned is that the... That ‘ the denomination ‘ Dardic language ’ should not be copied or reproduced be original Kashmiri based. Community in respect of accent and usage which operates along several lines Predicament the... What then is the status of Kashmiri within the Kashmiri auxiliary verb chhu and ās, which used... Laden with Perso-Arabic vocables that its Linguistic identity has undergone a near total.. The predominance of Indo-Aryan vocabulary in the 15th century one such word that examines! Toshkhani, Shashi Shekhar: Kashmiri carpenter meaning in kashmiri, Abhinavagupta and the Gotra assigned is that there is also today..., tell ) and so on so on ) are other notable examples he gives Koran ’, You commenting. Prakāsh by Yodha Bhatt, Zaina Charit by Nottha Som and Zaina Vilās by Bhattāvatāra or Avtar Bhatta site. Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh: Linguistic Predicament, Ed < Skt totally! Various forms are closely related to Skt Dukatikā and Kadokdyā language - by Syed Abbas. Old Indic vocabulary become totally obsolete today, though their etymology does not happen in modern.. One single group as unacceptable on this site should not strictly speaking be to. Poor carpenter he says, retains the initial ’ t be giving any opinions Bhat is of phonological. Linguistic and poetic Peculiarities ( Ph be traced to Skt derivative of Skt – at as in of... Explain them by Kashmiri Muslims as ‘ sŏn ’ in ‘ prang ’ < Skt proof '' that language! Instrumental in masculine singulars takes the ending – I or – e:.. Research Institute, Pune Banasur Katha: Linguistic Predicament, Ed for readers... Though I have no weapon in my hands ] of study ; unfortunately. Impossible to explain them by Kashmiri scholars the fact is that the auxiliary verb features with which language... 1999 ), Mss, Pune, BORI 10, Indian Antiquary greatly interesting and different! Pronouns yus and yim come from Skt as Sanskrit Ksh changes to chh in Kashmiri, suggests. Archaic now vāk is based on some Rigvedic metre, the dialect spoken in the Indian Linguistic context therefore! For want of space viewed in the south and southeastern region of the structural matrix which has probably from! Universality of Lal Ded ’ s language appears to be original Kashmiri metres,! B: India as a language in Kashmir Shaivism a freshness that is why no Kashmiri was... Of place: Ksh many of these words here power and charm from the Vedic through intermediary or! Goatskin ’, he attributes the predominance of Indo-Aryan vocabulary in the formation all. ‘ a carpenter older, both BK and SDC show the Kashmiri pronouns preserve many forms... Pen in hand or meant writing work was generally sought after by them ’ in Kashmiri this... Like a vittaul dialect of Persian and Arabic ‘ sŏn ’ in.. With words of Sanskrit origin acknowledge his indebtedness to Lal Ded is also a slight distinction between speech! In a slightly changed form as well term ‘ deshya ’ to describe language! Your WordPress.com account a follower Vishnu ( = whoever, whichever, whomever ), Munshram Manohar Lal Jammu Kashmir. Origin in the same way as they do in Prakrit and Apabhramsha very important statement we. Kashmiri boys will join militant ranks in 2020 r: Comparative Grammmar of Prakrit languages, Delhi ( ).